This page is an attempt to gather information about various
automata-related and DAWG-related resources in one place. We want to
make it **the** reference site. The need for it became obvious as
more and more people are rediscovering the same algorithms and
methods, sometimes using different terminology. Additions and
corrections are welcome - send them to the maintainer.

- Definitions and general information
- A Note on Memory Efficiency
- Algorithms and methods
- Creation
- Minimization
- Determinization
- Operations on automata
- Finite-state approximation of more powerful grammatical formalisms
- Different and efficient representations of automata
- Compression of automata
- Text compression with automata
- Text Indexation
- Perfect hashing
- Spelling correction
- Tokenization and lexical analysis
- Speech Recognition
- Morphology and phonology
- Restoration of diacritics
- Tagging
- Parsing
- Image processing
- DNA sequencing
- VLSI design
- Visualization

- FSA/FST/DAWG related sites
- Researchers
- Conferences
- Courses
- Additional information
- Maintainer

There are several books that contain introduction to automata theory. Some of them are listed below:

- Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes,
*Finite-State Language Processing*, Bradford Book series, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 1997.[bibtex] - Michael
A. Arbib and A.J. Kfoury and Robert N. Moll,
*Introduction to Formal Language Theory*, Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, 1988.[bibtex] - A. V. Aho, J.
E. Hopcroft and J. D. Ullman,
*The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms*, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1974.[bibtex] - John E. Hopcroft and Jefferey D. Ullman, Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, Adison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusets, USA, 1979.[bibtex]
- Alfred V. Aho and Ravi Sethi and Jeffrey
D. Ullman,
*Compilers. Principles, Techniques and Tools*, Addison Wesley, 1986.[bibtex] - Jacques Sakarovitch,
*Éléments de theorie des automates*, éditions Vuibert, 2003. Table of Contents, preface and introductions to chapters available at http://perso.enst.fr/~jsaka/ETA/. [bibtex]

You can also find a few introductory courses on-line:

- A Concise Tutorial on Finite Automata from CoLoS, Milan
- CPS 360 Textbook
- Finite-State Methods in Natural-Language Processing
- Finite State Machine Design

- Jean Berstel,
*Transductions and Context-Free Languages*, Teubner Studienbücher, Stuttgart, 1979.[bibtex] - Ch. Choffrut,
*Une caractérisation des fonctions séquentielles et des fonctions sous-séquentielles en tant que relations rationelles*, Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 5, pp. 325--338, 1977.[bibtex] - Dominique Perrin,
*Finite Automata*, in Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. Volume B: Formal Models and Semantics, J. van Leeuwen (ed.), Elsevier and the MIT Press, pp. 1--57, 1990.[bibtex] - Dominique Perrin and Jean-Eric Pin,
*Infinite Words*, (Automata, Semigroups,Logic and Games), Pure and Applied Mathematics Vol 141, Elsevier 2004, ISBN 0-12-532111-2. - Meera Blattner and Tom Head,
*Single-valued a-transducers*, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 15(3), pp. 328--353, 1977.[bibtex] - Mehryar Mohri,
*Finite-State Transducers in Language and Speech Processing*, Computational Linguistics, 23(2), pp. 269-311, June, 1997.[bibtex] - Sheng Yu, Regular Languages, in Handbook of Formal Languages, Vol. 1, G. Rozenberg and A. Salomaa eds., Springer, pp.41-110, 1998.[bibtex]

The NIST Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures provides many useful definitions. Wikipedia has an interesting entry on finite automata as well.

This page makes it absolutely clear that there are various algorithms for achieving the same goal. They can differ in various aspects. One of them is memory requirements. It became quite fashionable in some circles, e.g. among computational linguists, but also (surprisingly) among some computer scientists, to refer to any concern about memory requirements as old-fashioned. An argument that an algorithm using less memory than another algorithm is better than that other algorithm is no argument for them. They say it used to be like that some ten years ago, but not anymore. They are clearly wrong.

Ten years ago (whenever you read it - the growth is exponential
anyway), computers were about 100 times slower, and they had about 100 times
smaller memories. It is amazing that the difference is so huge. Does
it mean that we use only 1% of the total amount of memory in our
computers, and the other 99% is simply wasted? Have we totally abandoned
compression? The answer is **no**. The reason for that is the same
as for the fact that we have not abandoned fast algorithms in favor of
slower but simpler ones. The data we use grows with our computers. We
also use new kinds of data in new applications. While they might
require new algorithms, some old algorithms work perfectly well on
them - they just have bigger input.

Our computers not only grow; they can have... offsprings. The mode of interaction with every generation changes. First dinosaurs were fed with punched cards, and the results were available from the computer center the next day. Most of us have computers on their desks. Some of us have laptops or notebooks that can be used while traveling. There will be computers in watches. Why cannot we use them for the same tasks as mainframes? Although they are subject to the same law of growth, they have clearly much more limited memories. Some programs just don't fit into them. Unless we use memory-efficient algorithms, of course.

- Bruce W. Watson,
*Taxonomies and Toolkits of Regular Language Algorithms*, Ph.D. thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, 1995.[bibtex] - Bruce W. Watson,
*A Taxonomy of Finite Automata Construction Algorithms*, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 1993.[bibtex] - Bruce W. Watson,
*A taxonomy of algorithms for constructing minimal acyclic deterministic automata*, Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Implementing Automata, Potsdam, Germany, 1999.[bibtex]

All the algorithms presented in this subsection take special advantage of the acyclicity of automata.

A traditional approach to constructing acyclic recognizers consists in building a trie (the algorithm for that is trivial), and then minimizing it using any of the well-known minimization algorithms. It can still be fast, but the trie can be enormous. Incremental (and to some extent also semi-incremental) algorithms presented below have much lower memory requirements.

An algorithm for incremental construction of minimal, deterministic, acyclic
FSA from a sorted list of words (strings). It is very fast, and it
uses the smallest amount of memory among all available methods for
this task. *Incremental* means that words are added and integrated into
a minimal automaton (or minimal except for one word) on-the-fly.

- Jan
Daciuk, Stoyan
Mihov, Bruce Watson,
and Richard Watson,
*Incremental Construction of Minimal Acyclic Finite State Automata*, Computational Linguistics, 26(1), pp. 3--16, April 2000.[bibtex] - Jan
Daciuk, Richard E. Watson, and Bruce W. Watson,
*Incremental Construction of Acyclic Finite-State Automata and Transducers*, proceedings of Finite State Methods in Natural Language Processing, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, June -- July, 1998.[bibtex] - Stoyan Mihov,
*Direct Building of Minimal Automaton for Given List*, Annuaire de l'Université de Sofia ``St. Kl. Ohridski'', Faculté de Mathematique et Informatique, Sofia, Bulgaria, volume 91, livre 1, February 1998.[bibtex] - Stoyan Mihov,
*Direct Construction of Minimal Acyclic Finite States Automata*, Annuaire de l'Université de Sofia ``St. Kl. Ohridski'', Faculté de Mathematique et Informatique, Sofia, Bulgaria, volume 92, livre 2, November, 1998.[bibtex]

An algorithm for incremental construction of minimal, deterministic, acyclic FSA from an unsorted list of words (strings). It is very fast, but slower than the algorithm described above, and it is also economic in its use of memory, but the fact that the words may come in arbitrary order may make an intermediate automaton and its associated structures (a register of states) larger.

- Jan
Daciuk, Stoyan
Mihov, Bruce Watson,
and Richard Watson,
*Incremental Construction of Minimal Acyclic Finite State Automata*, Computational Linguistics, 26(1), pp. 3--16, April 2000.[bibtex] - Jan
Daciuk, Richard E. Watson, and Bruce W. Watson,
*Incremental Construction of Acyclic Finite-State Automata and Transducers*, proceedings of Finite State Methods in Natural Language Processing, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, June -- July, 1998.[bibtex] - K.
Sgarbas, N.
Fakotakis, and G.
Kokkinakis,
*Two Algorithms for incremental construction of Directed Acyclic Word Graphs*, International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, World Scientific, 4(3), pp. 369--381, 1995.[bibtex] - J. Aoe, K.Morimoto, and M.Hase,
*An Algorithm for Compressing Common Suffixes Used in Trie Structures*, Trans. IEICE, 1992.[bibtex] - Dominique Revuz,
*Dynamic Acyclic Minimal Automaton*, CIAA 2000, Fifth International Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata, pp. 226-232, London, Canada.[bibtex] - K.
Sgarbas, N.
Fakotakis, and G.
Kokkinakis,
*Optimal Insertion in Deterministic DAWGs*, Theoretical Computer Science, Elsevier, Vol.301/1-3, pp.103-117, 2003.[bibtex]

An algorithm for semi-incremental construction of minimal, deterministic, acyclic FSA from a presorted list of words. This algorithm does not construct the minimal automaton in one step, and the intermediate automaton can be large. The strings are inverted, then sorted, and then inverted again to compress endings, but this does not give the true minimization. Actually, the algorithm is used without presorting in the INTEX tool. The algorithm has the best worst case computational complexity, but in practice it is slower than the algorithms described above, except for the case when the strings have very long common suffixes (then it performs the best)..

- Dominique Revuz,
*Dictionnaires et lexiques: méthodes et algorithmes*, Thèse de doctorat, Institut Blaise Pascal, Paris, France, 1991, LITP 91.44.[bibtex]

An algorithm for semi-incremental construction of minimal, deterministic, acyclic FSA from a presorted list of words (strings). Words are sorted according to their decresing length.

- Bruce Watson,
*A Fast New (Semi-Incremental) Algorithm for the Construction of Minimal Acyclic DFAs*, Third Workshop on Implementing Automata, Rouen, France, 17-19 September, 1998.[bibtex]

If you want to compare various construction methods for acyclic automata, you might be interested in this page.

It contains an extended version of:- Jan Daciuk,
*Comparison of Construction Algorithms for Minimal, Acyclic, Deterministic, Finite-State Automata from Sets of Strings*, Seventh International Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata CIAA '2002, Tours, France, 2002.[bibtex]

An algorithm for incremental construction of nondeterministic, acyclic FSA from an unsorted list of words (strings).

- K.
Sgarbas, N.
Fakotakis, and G.
Kokkinakis,
*Two Algorithms for incremental construction of Directed Acyclic Word Graphs*, International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, World Scientific, 4(3), pp. 369--381, 1995.[bibtex] - K.
Sgarbas, N.
Fakotakis, and G.
Kokkinakis,
*Incremental Construction of Compact Acyclic NFAs*, Proc. ACL-2001, 39th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp.474-481, Toulouse, France, 6-11 July, 2001.[bibtex]

- Rafael C. Carrasco and Mikel L. Forcada,
*Incremental Construction and Maintenance of Minimal Finite-State Automata*, Computational Linguistics, 28(2), June 2002.[bibtex]

- Stoyan Mihov and
Denis
Maurel,
*Direct Construction of Minimal Acyclic Subsequential Transducers*, Fifth International Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata CIAA 2000, pp. 1--1, London, Ontario, Canada, July, 2000.[bibtex]

- Denis
Maurel,
*Pseudo-minimal transducer*, Theoretical Computer Science, 231, pp. 129-139, 2000.[bibtex]

There are two basic methods. Both lead to nondeterministic automata that can later be determinized and minimized.

The standard construction or Thompson construction is described in all major textbooks. It has been popularized by its use in grep and other UNIX tools. It comes in several variants.

- S. C. Kleene,
*Representations of Events in Nerve Sets and Finite Automata*, In: C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, editors,*Automata Studies*, pages 3-42, Princeton, NJ, 1956. Princeton University Press. - K. Thompson,
*Regular Expression Search Algorithm*, Communications of the ACM, 11:419-422, 1968.[bibtex]

The Glushkov or McNaughton-Yamada construction produces smaller automata. It was discovered independently by Glushkov and by McNaughton and Yamada. It is less known than the standard construction. The first three papers describe the original algorithm, the next two bring results about its complexity and its relation to Brzozowski derivatives, the last two present an elegant inductive step-by-step construction (also called Champarnaud-Glushkov construction). The Champarnaud-Glushkov construction is a different algorithm than the original one, but it leads to the same automaton (Glushkov automaton), and it is easier to understand and to implement.

- V. M. Glushkov,
*On Synthesis Algorithm for Abstract Automata*, Ukr. Mathem. Zhurnal, 12(2):147-156, 1960. In Russian.[bibtex] - V. M. Glushkov,
*The Abstract Theory of Automata*, Russian Mathematical Surveys, 16:1-53, 1961.[bibtex] - R. McNaughton and H. Yamada,
*Regular Expressions and State Graphs for Automata*, IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers, 9:39-47, 1960.[bibtex] - Anne Brügermann-Klein,
*Regular Expressions into Finite Automata*, Proceedings of Latin '92, 1992.[bibtex] - G. Berry and R. Sethi,
*From Regular Expressions to Deterministic Automata*, Theoretical Computer Science, 48:117-126, 1986.[bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
*From a Regular Expression to an Automaton*, Rapport LIR-97.08, Laboratoire d'Informatique de Rouen, France, 1997.[bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud, J.-L. Ponty, and Djelloul Ziadi,
*From Regular Expressions to Finite Automata*, International Journal of Computer Mathematics, 72, 415--431, 1999. [bibtex]

The first two papers below introduce the ZPC-structure, that provides an ε-free alternative for Thompson's technique. The third paper essentially compares Thompson and ZPC-based techniques. The last one extends ZPC-based techniques to the case of weighted expressions.

- Djelloul Ziadi, J.-L. Ponty and Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
*Passage d'une expression rationnelle à un automate fini non-déterministe*, Bulletin of the Belgian Mathematical Society Simon Stevin, 4(2), pp. 177-203, 1997. [bibtex] - Djelloul Ziadi, J.-L. Ponty and Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
*A new quadratic algorithm to convert a regular expression into an automaton*, in WIA'96, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, D. Raymond and D. Wood eds., Springer-Verlag, 1260, pp. 109-119, 1997. [bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
*Evaluation of Three Implicit Structures to Implement Nondeterministic Automata from Regular Expressions*, International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 13(1), pp. 99-113, 2004. [bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
E. Laugerotte, F. Ouardi and Djelloul Ziadi,
*From regular weighted expressions to finite automata*, International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 15(5), pp. 687-700, 2004. [bibtex]

The three following papers deal with the construction of a quotient of the Glushkov automaton, namely Antimirov automaton. The last one allows to convert a regular expression into its follow automaton, via its ZPC-structure.

- Jean-Marc Champarnaud
and Djelloul Ziadi,
*From Mirkin's Prebases to Antimirov's Word Partial Derivatives*, Fundamenta Informaticae, 45, pp. 195--205, 2001. [bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud
and Djelloul Ziadi,
*From C-Continuations to New Quadratic Algorithms for Automaton Synthesis*, International Journal of Algorithms and Computation, 11(6), pp. 707-735, 2001. [bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud
and Djelloul Ziadi,
*Canonical Derivatives, Partial Derivatives, and Finite Automaton Constructions*, Theoretical Computer Science, 289, pp. 137-163, 2002. [bibtex]

For a comparison of Thompson and Glushkov constructions see the first paper. The second paper contains a chapter (about 50 pages) on various variants of both constructions (including determinization). The third one is different from that chapter in the second one.

- Dora Giammarresi,
Jean-Luc Ponty, and Derick Wood,
*Glushkov and Thompson Constructions: A Synthesis*, Tech. Report 98-17, Universita' Ca' Foscari di Venezia, 1998. - Bruce W. Watson,
*Taxonomies and Toolkits of Regular Language Algorithms*, Ph.D. thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, 1995.[bibtex] - Bruce W. Watson,
*A taxonomy of algorithms for constructing minimal acyclic deterministic automata*, Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Implementing Automata, Potsdam, Germany, 1999.[bibtex]

For an extension of regular expressions see:

- Dale
Gerdemann and Gertjan van Noord,
*Transducers from Rewrite Rules with Backreferences*, Ninth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Bergen, Norway, 1999.[bibtex] - Gertjan van
Noord and Dale
Gerdemann,
*An Extendible Regular Expression Compiler for Finite-state Approaches in Natural Language Processing*, Workshop on Implementing Automata; WIA99 Pre-Proceedings, O. Boldt and H. Juergensen and L. Robbins (eds.), Potsdam, Germany, 1999.[bibtex]

A taxonomy of minimization algorithms can be found in:

- Bruce W. Watson,
*A Taxonomy of finite automata minimization algorithms*, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, Computing Science Note, 93/44, 1993.[bibtex] - Bruce W. Watson,
*Taxonomies and Toolkits of Regular Language Algorithms*, Ph.D. thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, 1995.[bibtex]

The fastest (*O*(|Q|log|Q|), where |Q| is the number of
states) minimization algorithm (by John E. Hopcroft) is described in:

- John
E. Hopcroft,
*An n log n algorithm for minimizing the states in a finite automaton*, in The Theory of Machines and Computations, Z. Kohavi (ed.), pp. 189-196, Academic Press, 1971.[bibtex] - David Gries,
*Describing an Algorithm by Hopcroft*, Acta Informatica, vol. 2, pp. 97-109, 1973.[bibtex] - A. V. Aho, J.
E. Hopcroft and J. D. Ullman,
*The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms*, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1974.[bibtex]

For an evaluation of various implementations of that algorithm, look at:

- George Anton
Kiraz and Edmund Grimley-Evans,
*Multi-tape Automata for Speech and Language Systems: A Prolog Implementation*, Automata Implementation. Second Internation Workshop on Implementing Automata, WIA '97, Derick Wood and Sheng Yu (eds.), Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1436, pp. 87-103, 1997. [bibtex]

An algorithm that is considered by some people to be equally fast
for frequently encountered data is Brzozowski's algorithm. It
minimizes an automaton by performing reversal and determinization
twice. The subset construction (determinization) is
*O*(2^{|Q|}), where Q is a set of states, but it
depends on input (see master thesis by Ted Leslie in the
Determinization section). The second paper
here describes complexity of operations needed to implement
Brzozowski's algorithm.

- J.
A. Brzozowski,
*Canonical regular expressions and minimal state graphs for definite events*, in Mathematical Theory of Automata, Volume 12 of MRI Symposia Series, pp. 529-561, Polytechnic Press, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, N.Y., 1962.[bibtex] - C. Câmpeanu, K. Culik II, and Sheng Yu,
*State Complexity of Basic Operations on Finite Languages*, Automata Implementation. Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Implementing Automata, WIA'99, Oliver Boldt and Helmut Jürgensen (Eds.), Postdam, Germany, LNCS 2214, Springer, 2001.[bibtex]

The following algorithm is different from all others because partial
results can be used. It tests pairs of states for equivalence. The
first paper describes a version with exponential time complexity. The
second paper adds modifications that make it almost
*O*(|Q|^{2}).

- Bruce W. Watson,
*An incremental DFA minimization algorithm*, Finite State Methods in Natural Language Processing 2001, ESSLLI Workshop, August 20-24, Helsinki, Finland, 2001.[bibtex] - Bruce B. Watson, Jan
Daciuk,
*An efficient incremental DFA minimization algorithm*, Natural Language Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 01, March 2003. [bibtex]

The Hopcroft-Ullman is one of the best known. Its complexity is
*O*(|Q|^{2}), and it also requires
*O*(|Q|^{2}) memory, so it does not seem to be suitable
for large automata. Pairs of states are considered, and the automaton
has to be complete (i.e. it must have a sink, or dead state). A pair of
states is distinguished if one of the states in the pair is final, and
the other non-final. A pair of states is also distinguished if
transitions labeled with the same symbol lead to another pair of
states that was found distinguishable. For each pair of states, a list
of pairs is found that are targets of transitions. Initially, pairs
containing one final, and one non-final state are marked as
distinguishable. Then all pairs that are on lists associated with
those pairs are marked, and so on until no new pairs are marked. Pairs
that are not marked are equivalent.

- John E. Hopcroft and Jefferey D. Ullman, Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, Adison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusets, USA, 1979.[bibtex]

The Aho-Sethi-Ullman algorithm has the same complexity as the
Hopcroft-Ullman algorithm, i.e. *O*(|Q|^{2}), but it
needs only *O*(|Q|) memory. As in the Hopcroft algorithm, the set
of states is partitioned, and the blocks are refined in each step,
until no more divisions occur. Two states are put into different
blocks if they have transitions leading to states in different
partitions. In difference to the Hopcroft algorithm, forward
transitions are used for that purpose (the Hopcroft algorithm uses
back transitions to split blocks with transitions leading to the
current block).

- Alfred V. Aho and Ravi Sethi and Jeffrey
D. Ullman,
*Compilers. Principles, Techniques and Tools*, Addison Wesley, 1986.[bibtex]

For acyclic automata, there are better methods than those given above. The minimization part of incremental and semi-incremental construction algorithms can be used.

- Mehryar Mohri,
*Compact Representations by Finite-State Transducers*, ACL'94, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, California, USA, 1994.[bibtex]

The term deterministic can mean two things:

- for recognizers, it means that for each state there cannot be more than one out transitions with the same label, there is one initial state, and there are no epsilon transitions;
- for transducers, it usually means that in addition, there can be no two out transitions with the same label on the "input" level, and different labels on the "output" level.

Determinization of the first kind is performed using *subset
construction*. Ted Leslie investigates various approaches to the
problem, as well as the influence of various properties of automata
(density etc.) on the complexity of determinization. Gertjan van Noord
focuses on a subproblem of determinization - removal of
epsilon-transitions. Jean-Marc Champarnaud investigates
determinization of specific automata (the 4th paper), and then (with
coauthors) applies the results to safe regular expression search. The
last paper addresses the problem of reducing the number of unreachable
states produced by a brute force determinization.

- Ted Leslie,
*Efficient Approaches to Subset Construction*, masters thesis, Computer Science, University of Waterloo, 1995.[bibtex] - J. Howard Johnson and Derick Wood,
*Instruction Computation in Subset Construction*, in Automata Implementation, Darrell Raymond and Derick Wood and Sheng Yu (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1260, pp. 64-71, Springer Verlag, 1997.[bibtex] - Gertjan van Noord,
*The Treatment of Epsilon Moves in Subset Construction*, Computational Linguistics, 26(1), pp. 61-76, April 2000. Available from www.let.rug.nl/~vannoord/papers/[bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
*Subset Construction Complexity for Homogeneous Automata, Position Automata and ZPC-Structures*, Theoretical Computer Science, 267, pp. 17-34, 2001.[bibtext] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
F. Coulon and T. Paranthoën,
*Compact and Fast Algorithms for Safe Regular Expression Search*, International Journal of Computer Mathematics, 81(4), pp. 383-401, 2004. [bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
F. Coulon and T. Paranthoën,
*Brute Force Determinization of NFAs by Means of State Covers*, International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 16(3), pp. 441-451, 2005. [bibtex]

For transducers, the first three below include weighted transducers:

- Mehryar Mohri,
*Finite-State Transducers in Language and Speech Processing*, Computational Linguistics, 23(2), pp. 269-311, June 1997.[bibtex] - Mehryar Mohri,
*On some applications of finite-state automata theory to natural language processing*, Natural Language Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 61-80, 1996. Originally appeared in 1994 as Technical Report, institut Gaspard Monge, Paris.[bibtex] - Mehryar Mohri
and Fernando C.N. Pereira and Michael Riley,
*A Rational Design for a Weighted Finite-State Transducer Library*, Automata Implementation. Second International Workshop on Implementing Automata, WIA '97, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1436, Springer Verlag, 1998.[bibtex] - Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes,
*Deterministic Part-of-Speech Tagging with Finite-State Transducers*, Computational Linguistics, 21(2), pp. 227-253, June, 1995.[bibtex]

Most operations are described in:

- Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes,
*Finite-State Language Processing*, Bradford Book series, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 1997.[bibtex]

These include weighted automata:

- Mehryar Mohri,
*On some applications of finite-state automata theory to natural language processing*, Natural Language Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 61-80, 1996. Originally appeared in 1994 as Technical Report, institut Gaspard Monge, Paris.[bibtex]

Fast operations on automata

- A. Bergeron and
S. Hamel,
*Fast Implementations of Automata Computations*, Pre-Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Implementation and Application of Automata (CIAA), M. Daley, M. G. Eramian, and S. Yu (eds.), pp. 16-25, the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, July 2000.[bibtex]

- André
Kempe,
*Factorization of Ambiguous Finite-State Transducers*, in: Proc. CIAA 2000, London, Ontario, Canada, pp. 157-164, 2000.[bibtex]

- André
Kempe,
*Reduction of Intermediate Alphabets in Finite-State Transducer Cascades*, in: Proc. TALN 2000, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 207-215, 2000.[bibtex]

- A.W. Black,
*Finite state machines from feature grammars*, International Workshop on Parsing Technologies, pp. 277-285, Pittsburgh, USA, 1989.[bibtex] - Edmund Grimley Evans,
*Approximating Context-Free Grammars with a Finite-State Calculus*, 35th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 8th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 452-459, Madrid, 1997.[bibtex] - Mark Johnson,
*Finite-state Approximation of Constraint-based Grammars using Left-corner Grammar Transforms*, COLING-ACL '98. 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the Conference, Montreal, 1998.[bibtex] - Mark-Jan Nederhof,
*Regular approximation of CFLs: a grammatical view*, In H. Bunt and A. Nijholt, editors, Advances in Probabilistic and other Parsing Technologies, chapter 12, pages 221-241. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.[bibtext] - Mark-Jan Nederhof,
*Context-free Parsing through regular approximation*, Finite-state Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 13-24, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, 1998.[bibtex] - Fernando C. N. Pereira and Rebecca N. Wright,
*Finite-State Approximation of Phrase-Structure Grammars*, in Finite-State Language Processing, Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes (eds.), pp. 149-173, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997.[bibtex] - R.E. Stearns,
*A Regularity Test for Pushdown Machines*, Information and Control, vol. 11, pp. 323-340, 1967.[bibtex] - J.S. Ullian,
*Partial Algorithm Problems for Context Free Languages*, Information and Control, vol. 11, pp. 80-101, 1967.[bibtex] - C.M. Rood,
*Efficient Finite-State Approximation of Context Free Grammars*, in Extended Finite State Models of Language, Proceedings of the ECAI'96 workshop, pp. 58-64, Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Hungary, 1996.[bibtex] - L.G. Valiant,
*Regularity and Related Problems for Deterministic Pushdown Automata*, Journal of the ACM, 22(1), pp. 1-10, 1975.[bibtex] - Mark-Jan Nederhof,
*Practical Experiments with Regular Approximation of Context-Free Languages*, Computational Linguistics, 26(1), April, 2000.[bibtex] - Mehryar Mohri,
Mark-Jan Nederhof,
*Regular Approximation of Context-Free Grammars through Transformation*, Robustness in Language and Speech Technology, J.-C. Junqua and G. van Noord (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 153-163, 2001.[bibtex]

- K. Salomaa, X. Wu, and S. Yu,
*Efficient Implementation of Regular Languages Using r-AFA*, Second International Workshop on Implementing Automata, WIA'97, Springer Verlag LNCS 1436, pp. 176-184, 1997.[bibtex] - S. Huerter, K. Salomaa, X. Wu, and S. Yu,
*Implementing r-AFA Operations*, Third International Workshop on Implementing Automata, WIA'98, Jean-Marc Champarnaud and Denis Maurel and Djelloul Ziadi (eds.), Rouen, France, Springer Verlag LNCS 1660, pp. 69-81, 1998.[bibtex]

- C. C\^{a}mpeanu, N. Santean, and S. Yu,
*Minimal Cover-Automata for Finite Languages*, Third International Workshop on Implementing Automata, WIA'98, Jean-Marc Champarnaud and Denis Maurel and Djelloul Ziadi (eds.), Rouen, France, Springer Verlag LNCS 1660, pp. 43-56, 1998. [bibtex] - A. P\u{a}un, N. Seatan, and S. Yu,
*An O(n*, Fifth International Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata CIAA 2000, M. Dalej and M. G. Eramian and S. Yu (eds.), London, Ontario, Canada, (to appear in Springer Verlag LNCS 2088), 2000.[bibtex]^{2}) Algorithm for Constructing Minimal Cover Automata for Finite Languages - Heiko Goeman,
*On Minimizing Cover Automata in O(n log n) Time*, proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata, Jean-Marc Champarnaud and Denis Maurel (eds.), University of Tours, France, July, 2002.[bibtex] - Cezar C\^{a}mpeanu and Andrei P\u{a}un,
*The Number of Similarity Relations and the Number of Minimal Deterministic Finite Cover Automata*, proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata, Jean-Marc Champarnaud and Denis Maurel (eds.), University of Tours, France, July, 2002.[bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
F. Guingne and G. Hansel,
*Similarity Relations and Cover Automata*, RAIRO-Theoretical Informatics and Applications, 39(1), pp. 115-123, 2005. [bibtex] - Jean-Marc Champarnaud,
F. Guingne and G. Hansel,
*Cover Transducers for Functions with Finite Domain*, International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 16(5), pp. 851--865, 2005. [bibtex] - Cezar C\^{a}mpeanu and Andrei P\u{a}un,
*Incremental Construction of Minimal Deterministic Finite Cover Automata*, Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 135-148, 2006.[bibtex]

Many compression methods are described in:

- Tomasz
Kowaltowski, Cláudio L. Lucchesi, and Jorge Stolfi,
*Minimization of Binary Automata*, First South American String Processing Workshop, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 1993.[bibtex]

Another compression method, mostly incompatible with those above, but giving superb recognition speed (but slower for other tasks) is given in the first paper below. It is based on the second paper here.

- Franklin Mark Liang,
*Word Hy-phen-a-tion by Computer*, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford, 1983.[bibtex] - Robert Endre
Tarjan and Andrew Chi-Chih Yao,
*Storing a Sparse Table*, Communications of the ACM, 22(11), pp. 606-611, November, 1979.[bibtex]

There is something by Dominique Revuz, but he does not even care to list his publications.

- Max
Silberztein,
*Text Indexation with INTEX*, Computers and the Humanities, 33(3), pp. 265-280, 1999.[bibtex]

Perfect hashing means a 1:1 mapping between a set of *n*
unique words and numbers 1...*n* (or 0...*n*-1). There are
two basic, similar ways to implement that. At each state, a number of
strings recognized by the part of the automaton reachable from that
state is stored. During the word to number conversion, numbers from
targets of transitions preceding the transition being followed are
added along the path spelling out the word. During the number to word
conversion, at each state, numbers stored at targets of transitions
are added to the total as long as it does not become greater than the
word number. Then the next transition is followed. The numbers can
be stored in transitions instead of states, but it increases the size
of the automaton.

The second method is to store in each transition the number of words that are recognized along all paths that precede the current transition. In other words, a number of words that have smaller numbers than any word such that the current transition belongs to its path is stored in the current transition. This method is faster than the previous one, it can be used together with the sparse matrix representation (which also gives very fast recognition speed), and allows for transition sharing, but as there are more transitions than states (even when some transitions are shared), it takes more space.

- Cláudio Lucchiesi and Tomasz Kowaltowski,
*Applications of Finite Automata Representing Large Vocabularies*, Software Practice and Experience, 23(1), pp. 15--30, Jan. 1993.[bibtex]

There are two papers describing the same method. The method is based on computing the edit distance using dynamic programming.

- Kemal
Oflazer and Cemalettin Gúzey,
*Spelling Correction in Agglutinative Languages*, 4th Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, pp. 194-195, Stuttgart, Germany, October, 1994.[bibtex] - Kemal Oflazer,
*Error-tolerant Finite State Recognition with Applications to Morphological Analysis and Spelling Correction*, Computational Linguistics, 22(1), pp. 73--89, March, 1996.[bibtex]

- Alfred V. Aho and Ravi Sethi and Jeffrey
D. Ullman,
*Compilers. Principles, Techniques and Tools*, Addison Wesley, 1986.[bibtex] - M. E. Lesk and E. Schmidt,
*Lex - a Lexical Analyzer Generator*, CS Technical Report No. 39, Bell Laboratories, 1975.[bibtex] - S. C. Johnson and M. E. Lesk,
*Language Development Tools*, Bell System Technical Journal, 57(6), 1978.[bibtex] - Gregory
Grefenstette and Pasi
Tapanainen,
*What is a word, What is a sentence? Problems of Tokenization*, Xerox Research Centre Europe, MLTT, MLTT-004, 1994.[bibtex]

- Martin Oerder and Hermann Ney,
*Word Graphs: An Efficient Interface Between Continuous-Speech Recognition and Language Understanding*, ICASSP Volume 2, pp. 119-122, 1993.[bibtex] - Mehryar Mohri
and Michael Riley and Don Hindle and Andrej Ljolje and Fernando
Pereira,
*Full expansion of context-dependent networks in large vocabulary speech recognition*, Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '98), Seattle, 1998.[bibtex] - Fernando C. N. Pereira and Michael D. Riley,
*LSpeech Recognition by Composition of Weighted Finite Automata*, 1996.[bibtex]

- C. Douglas Johnson,
*Formal Aspects of Phonological Description*, Mouton, The Hague, 1972.[bibtex] - Ronald M. Kaplan and Martin Kay,
*Regular Models of Phonological Rule Systems*, Computational Linguistics, 20(3), pp. 331-378, September 1994.[bibtex]

- Kimmo Koskenniemi, Two-Level Model for Morphological Analysis, IJCAI-83, pp. 683--685, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1983.[bibtex]
- Kimmo Koskenniemi,
*A General Computational Model for Word-Form Recognition and Production*, COLING-84, pp. 178--181, Stanford University, California, USA, 1984.[bibtex] - Kimmo Koskenniemi,
*Two-level Morphology: a General Computational Model for Word-form Recognition and Production*, technical report 11, Department of General Linguistics, University of Helsinki, Finland, 1983.[bibtex]

- Herbert Ruessink,
*Two-level formalisms*, Working Papers in Natural Language Processing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Stichting Taaltechnologie Utrecht, vol. 5, 1989.[bibtex] - Edmund Grimley Evans and George
Anton Kiraz and Stephen G. Pulman,
*Compiling a Partition-Based Two-Level Formalism*, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING), Copenhagen, 1996.[bibtex]

- Graeme Ritchie and Steve Pulman and Alan Black and Graham Russel,
*A Computational Framework for Lexical Description*, Computational Linguistics, 13(3-4), 1987.[bibtex] - John Bear,
*A Morphological Recognizer with Syntactic and Phonological Rules*, proceedings of COLING-86, Bonn, 1986.[bibtex] - George
Anton Kiraz,
*Compiling Regular Formalisms with Rule Features into Finite-State Automata*, 33th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Madrid, 1997.[bibtex]

- Lauri
Karttunen,
*Constructing Lexical Transducers*, COLING-94, pp. 406--411, Kyoto, Japan, 1994.[bibtex]

- Lauri
Karttunen,
*The Replace Operator*, ACL-95, pp. 16--23, Boston, Massachusetts, 1995.[bibtex] - Lauri
Karttunen,
*Directed Replacement*, The Proceedings of the 34rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics ACL-96, Santa Cruz, California, USA, 1996.[bibtex] - Lauri
Karttunen,
*Finite-state Constraints*, Proceedings International Conference on Current Issues in Computational Linguistics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 1991. [bibtex]
- André
Kempe and Lauri
Karttunen,
*Parallel Replacement in the Finite-State Calculus*, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING), Copenhagen, Denmark, 1996. - Lauri
Karttunen and Jean-Pierre Chanod and and Anne Schiller,
*Regular Expressions for Language Engineering*, Natural Language Engineering, 2(4), pp. 305-238, 1996.[bibtex]

A short history of two-level morphology was presented in talk given by Lauri Karttunen and Kenneth R. Beesley at Finite State Methods in Natural Language Processing 2001, ESSLLI Workshop, August 20-24, Helsinki.

- Mehryar Mohri
and Richard Sproat,
*An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules*, 34th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Santa Cruz, 1996.[bibtex]

Dictionary-based morphological analysis:

- Tomasz
Kowaltowski, Cláudio L. Lucchesi, and Jorge Stolfi,
*Finite Automata and Efficient Lexicon Implementation*, technical report IC-98-02, University of Campinas, Brazil, 1998.[bibtex]

Approximative morphological analysis based on prefixes, infixes, and endings. The method basically consists of reversing words (prefixes and infixes have to be specially treated), appending the result (the analysis), constructing a DFA for such strings, and pruning the automaton by removing all states and transitions that all lead from a certain prefix to the same result. In the recognition phase, words are reversed and looked up in the automaton. When there are no more transitions to follow, all results reachable from the last state reached are printed.

- Jan Daciuk,
*Treatment of Unknown Words*, proceedings of Workshop on Implementing Automata WIA'99, Postdam, Germany, 1999.[bibtex]

- Steven Bird and T. Mark Ellison,
*One-Level Phonology: Autosegmental Representations and Rules as Finite Automata*, Computational Linguistics, 20(1), pp. 55-90, 1994.[bibtex] - Markus Walther,
*One-Level Prosodic Morphology*, technical report MAL-1, MAL - Marburger Arbeiten zur Linguistik, Institüt für Germanistische Sprachwissenschaft, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 1999. cs.CL/9911011. See MAL archive at http://www.uni-marburg.de/linguistik/mal/.[bibtex] - Markus Walther,
*Finite-State Reduplication in One-Level Prosodic Morphology*, First Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Seattle, 2000.[bibtex] - Markus Walther,
*Temiar Reduplication in One-Level Prosodic Morphology*, Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop of the ACL Special Interest Group in Computational Phonology, pp. 13-21, Luxembourg, August 6th, 2000. cs.CL/0008015.[bibtex]

- Robert Frank and Giorgio Satta, Optimality Theory and the Generative Complexity of Constraint Violability, Computational Linguistics, 24(2), pp. 307--315, June, 1998.[bibtex]
- Lauri
Karttunen,
*The Proper Treatment of Optimality in Computational Phonology*, Proceedings of Finite State Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 1--12, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, June -- July 1998.[bibtex] - Dale
Gerdemann and Gertjan van Noord,
*Approximation and Exactness in Finite State Optimality Theory*, Coling Workshop Finite State Phonology, Luxembourg, 2000.[bibtex] - Markus Walther,
*One-Level Prosodic Morphology*, technical report 1, Institüt für Germanistische Sprachwissenschaft, Philipps-Universität Marbug, 1999. cs.CL/9911011.[bibtex] - Jason Eisner,
*Efficient Generation in Primitive Optimality Theory*, 36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 1998.[bibtex] - Mark T. Ellison,
*Phonological derivation in optimality theory*, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING), pp. 1007-1013, Kyoto, 1994.[bibtex]

- George Anton
Kiraz,
*Multi-Tape Two-Level Morphology: a Case Study in Semitic Non-linear Morphology*, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Kyoto, Japan, 1994.[bibtex] - George
Anton Kiraz,
*Multitiered Nonlinear Morphology Using Multitape Finite Automata: A Case Study on Syriac and Arabic*, Computational Linguistics, 26(1), pp. 77--105, 2000.[bibtex]

- Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes,
*Deterministic Part-of-Speech Tagging with Finite-State Transducers*, Computational Linguistics, 21(2), pp. 227-253, June, 1995.[bibtex]

- André
Kempe,
*Finite State Transducers Approximating Hidden Markov Models*, in: Proc. ACL'97, Madrid, Spain, pp. 460-467, 1997.[bibtex] - André
Kempe,
*Look-Back and Look-Ahead in the Conversion of Hidden Markov Models into Finite-State Transducers*, in: Proc. NeMLaP'98, Sydney, Australia, pp. 29-37, 1998.[bibtex]

- Kemal Oflazer, Dependency Parsing with an Extended Finite State Approach, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Maryland, USA, June, 1999.
- D.T. Langendoen,
*Finite-State Parsing of Phrase-Structure Languages and the Status of Readjustment Rules in Grammar*, Linguistic Inquiry, 6(4), pp. 533-554, 1975.[bibtex] - Steven Krauwer and Louis des Tombe,
*Transducers and grammars as theories of language*, Theoretical Linguistics, 8, pp. 173--202, 1981.[bibtex] - Maurice Gross,
*The use of Finite Automata in the Lexical Representation of Natural Language*, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989.[bibtex] - Maurice Gross,
*Local Grammars*, in: Finite-State Language Processing, Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes (eds.), pp. 330-354, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997.[bibtex] - Fred Karlsson, Atro Voutilainen, Juha Heikkila, and Atro
Anttila,
*Constraint Grammar, A Language-independent System for Parsing Unrestricted Text*, Mouton de Gruyter, 1995.[bibtex] - Emmanuel Roche,
*Parsing with Finite-State Transducers*, in: Finite-State Language Processing, Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes (eds.), pp. 241-281, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997.[bibtex] - Pasi Tapanainen,
*Applying a Finite-State Intersection Grammar*, in: Finite-State Language Processing, Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes (eds.), pp. 311-327, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997.[bibtex] - Atro Voutilainen and Pasi Tapanainen,
*Ambiguity Resolution in a Reductionist Parser*, Sixth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Utrecht, 1993.[bibtex] - Atro Voutilainen,
*Designing a (Finite-State) Parsing Grammar*, in: Finite-State Language Processing, Emmanuel Roche and Yves Schabes (eds.), pp. 283-310, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997.[bibtex] - Steven Abney,
*Partial Parsing via Finite-State Cascades*, in: Workshop on Robust Parsing; Eight European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information, John Carroll (ed.), pp. 8-15, 1995.[bibtex] - Steven Abney,
*Parsing By Chunks*, in: Principle-Based Parsing, Robert Berwick and Steven Abney and Carol Tenny (eds.), Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, 1991.[bibtex] - Steven Abney,
*Tagging and Partial Parsing*, in: Corpus-Based Methods in Language and Speech, Ken Church and Steve Young and Gerrit Bloothooft (eds.), An ELSNET volume. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1996.[bibtex] - Gregory
Grefenstette,
*Light Parsing as Finite-State Filtering*, EACI 1996 Workshop Extended Finite-State Models of Language, Budapest, 1996.[bibtex] - Jean-Pierre Chanod and Pasi Tapanainen,
*A Robust Finite-State Grammar for French*, Workshop on Robust Parsing, John Carroll (ed.), Prague, 1996. These proceedings are also available as Cognitive Science Research Paper #435; School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex.[bibtex] - Fred Karlsson and Atro Voutilainen and Juha Heikkilä and Arto
Anttila,
*Constraint Grammar: A Language-Independent Framework for Parsing Unrestricted Text*, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin/New York, 1995.[bibtex]

- Jan Lehoda and Borivoj Melichar, Pattern Matching in Text Coded
by Finite Translation Automaton, in Proceedings of the
7
^{th}International Multiconference Information Society IS'2004. Ljubjana: Institut Jozef Stefan, 2004, vol. D, pp. 212-214, ISBN 961-6303065-1.[bibtex]

- Eleftherios Koutsofios and Stephen C. North,
*Editing graphs with dotty*, AT&T Bell Laboratories,*dotty*User Manual, 1994.[bibtex] - G. Sander,
*Graph Layout through the VCG Tool*, in R. Tamassia and I. G. Tollis (eds.), Graph Drawing, DIMACS International Workshop GD '94, Proceedings; Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 194-205, Springer Verlag, 1995. - Sylvain Lombardy and Jacques Sakarovitch,
*Vaucanson. A package for drawing automata. Presentation and user's manual*, May 30, 2002. Available at http://perso.enst.fr/~lombardy/Vauc/.[bibtex]

- Maxime Crochemore and Renaud Vérin, On Compact Directed Acyclic Word Graphs, in Structures in Logic and Computer Science, a selection of essays in honor of Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, Jan Mycielski, Grzegorz Rozenberg and Arto Salomaa, eds., LNCS 1261, Springer Verlag, 1997, pp. 192--211.[bibtex]
- Jan Holub, Maxime Crochemore, On the Implementation of Compact DAWG's. Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata, University of Tours, Tours, France, July 2002, LNCS 2608, Springer Verlag, 2003, pp. 289-294.[bibtex]

- WIA - Workshop on Implementing Automata
- CIAA - Conference on Implementation and Application of Automata (successor of WIA)
- FSMNLP - Finite-State Methods in Natural Language Processing
- DCAGRS - Descriptional Complexity of Automata, Grammars and Related Structures
- DCFS - Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems (Successor of DCAGRS)
- DLT - Developments in Language Theory
- AFL - Automata and Formal Languages
- NCMA - Non-Classical Models of Automata and Applications
- LATA - Language and Automata Theory and Applications

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There is a forum for disscussion of FSA-related issues at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/FSA-Research. To subscribe, send message to FSA-Research-subscribe@yahoogroups.com. Since egroups were taken over by Yahoo, it is more difficult to register at the new site, and registering is required to view the list archive (but you can send and receive messages without registering). They require information about sex, age, occupation etc. Registering as a newly born Bolivian woman (Bolivia just happened to be under the cursor) did not work, because the system requires the users to be at least 2 years old. Registering as a two years old Bolivian woman did not work either because the system asked me to bring my parents. Now I'm 50 years old Bolivian woman...

If you register at the Yahoo site, don't forget to write down your password. Until recently, you could rely on cookies to let the server let you in. Now Yahoo became more aggressive, and they require you to resupply your password, or to give them your personal information - Big Brother is watching you. Perhaps we should move somewhere else... I'm glad this page is not on the Yahoo server.

Send new entries/corrections to the current maintainer Jan Daciuk (not a woman) at
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people contributed to this page: Gertjan van Noord, André
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